Peer-Reviewed and Academic Literature That Supports NaProTECHNOLOGY

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  1. NaProTECHNOLOGY
  2. Thomas W. Hilgers MD, DIP. ABOG, ABLS, SRS — Biographical Sketch
  3. Curriculum Vitae:
    1. Curriculum Vitae: Books
    2. Curriculum Vitae: Book Chapters
    3. Curriculum Vitae: Films and Videotapes
    4. Curriculum Vitae: Articles
    5. Curriculum Vitae: Poster Presentations
    6. Curriculum Vitae: Oral Presentations
  4. Peer-Reviewed and Academic References as a Foundation to NaProTECHNOLOGY:
    1. Scientific Foundations of the Creighton Model
    2. Trends and Deficiencies in Infertility Treatment
    3. Medical Risks of Infertility
    4. NaProTECHNOLOGY in Infertility
    5. Disorders of Human Ovulation
    6. Follicular and Luteal Phase Deficiencies
    7. Hormones vs. Artimones
    8. Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion
    9. Effectiveness of NaProTECHNOLOGY in the Treatment of Infertility
    10. Premenstrual Syndrome
    11. Postpartum Depression
    12. Dating the Beginning of Pregnancy
    13. Using Progesterone Support During Pregnancy
    14. Prevention of Preterm Birth
    15. Surgical NaProTECHNOLOGY

NaProTECHNOLOGY

For physicians, especially obstetrician-gynecologists, who hear about NaProTECHNOLOGY for the first time, they are often concerned that there is not any peer-reviewed medical literature or academic literature which supports this approach. However, over the last 30 to 40 years, there has been a large volume of literature which has been published and presents itself as foundational work to both the Creighton Model FertilityCare™ System and the women’s health science of NaProTECHNOLOGY.

It is of interest to note that over this period of time, there have been literally hundreds of thousands of scientific papers published in the medical literature relative to obstetrics, gynecology and reproductive medicine. It is generally not possible for practicing physicians, or even those in academic medicine, to keep abreast of that volume of literature. As a result, different medical organizations assist the practicing physician in “packaging” the results of various literature. This then becomes the platform of information upon which physicians support their own approach to obstetrics, gynecology and reproductive medicine.

With the advent of the oral contraceptive in 1960, followed rapidly by the legalization of induced abortion and the wide availability of in vitro fertilization (artificial reproductive technologies), contraception, sterilization, abortion and the artificial reproductive technologies have become a mainstay for physicians practicing in this field. In addition, organizations such as the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology which strongly supports this approach to medicine, wrap their committee opinions in this approach. While this is being accomplished, a wide availability of medical literature has been slipped aside and, for most physicians, completely lost to their access. In fact, residency programs for the training of young physicians tend to follow these approaches and it has built a profession which often thinks there is no other alternative.

The approach of NaProTECHNOLOGY requires a different way of problem solving. It is not in the general thrust of the profession, but, at the same time, this is not the same as saying this is not scientifically sound. In fact, there has been a large volume of literature that has been published over these years which supports the approach taken in NaProTECHNOLOGY.

This section of the web site presents some of those references. First of all, it begins with a biographical sketch of Thomas W. Hilgers, MD, the Director of the Pope Paul VI Institute, where most of the foundational research for this has been undertaken. Secondly, it presents a partial list of Dr. Hilgers’ peer-reviewed and academic publications. Thirdly, it presents a large volume of literature citations where, if the physician is willing to dig in, read and evaluate, the physician will find the data that supports the NaProTECHNOLOGY approach.

In those sections, citations supporting the scientific foundations of the Creighton Model, trends and deficiencies in infertility treatment, the medical risks of infertility, NaProTECHNOLOGY in infertility, disorders of human ovulation, follicular and luteal phase deficiencies, hormones versus artimones, recurrent spontaneous abortion, the effectiveness of NaProTECHNOLOGY in infertility, premenstrual syndrome, postpartum depression, the dating of the beginning of pregnancy, progesterone support during pregnancy, the prevention of preterm birth, and surgical NaProTECHNOLOGY are presented in an exhaustive fashion.

It should be noted, in reviewing this, that the textbook, The Medical & Surgical Practice of NaProTECHNOLOGY, should serve as foundational reading for how this literature is interpreted and integrated along with the additional research that has been conducted in a voluminous fashion at the Pope Paul VI Institute for the Study of Human Reproduction. It is prudent to try to integrate this literature with that textbook to appreciate and understand how it is being interpreted and integrated.


Thomas W. Hilgers, MD, DIP. ABOG, ABLS, SRS

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Dr. Thomas Hilgers is the founder and director of the Pope Paul VI Institute for the Study of Human Reproduction, in Omaha, Nebraska. The Institute is dedicated to research, education and service in the areas of human reproduction within the philosophical and moral framework found in the teachings of the Catholic Church. He currently serves there as a Senior Medical Consultant in Obstetrics, Gynecology, Reproductive Medicine and Surgery. He is board certified in obstetrics and gynecology and gynecologic laser surgery and is a member of the Society of Reproductive Surgeons.

He has served on the faculty of medicine at St. Louis University School of Medicine and Creighton University School of Medicine in their Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology. While at Creighton, he founded and directed the Creighton University Natural Family Planning Education and Research Center. Along with his colleagues, he is the developer of the Creighton Model FertilityCare™ System, a thoroughly standardized modification of the Billings Ovulation Method. His ongoing medical research and application of this system has led to the development of the new women’s health science called NaProTECHNOLOGY. In July 2004, he published the first definitive medical textbook on this new science, The Medical and Surgical Practice of NaProTECHNOLOGY.

He is also a founder of the American Academy of Fertility Care Professionals, FertilityCare™ Centers of America and FertilityCare™ Centers International.

He is the author of nearly 113 professional books, book chapters, and articles. He has also produced 11 videotapes, presented 7 different poster sessions at professional meetings and countless numbers of audiotapes. In addition, he is the recipient of 5 different research awards and has been awarded an honorary doctorate of humane letters from Assumption College, Worcester, Massachusetts and an honorary doctorate of public health from Franciscan University of Steubenville, Ohio. In 1994, Pope John Paul II appointed him to full membership in the Pontifical Academy for Life and with his wife, Susan he served for five years on the Pontifical Council for the Family. In 1997, the Nebraska Family Council named Dr. Hilgers Physician of the Year. In 2001, he was presented with the John Cardinal Wright Award by the Fellowship of Catholic Scholars and in October, 2003, he received the Linacre Award, the highest award given by the Catholic Medical Association. The Hilgers are the parents of four sons and one daughter.


Curriculum Vitae: Books

  1. Wallace M and Hilgers TW (Eds.): The Gift of Life: The Proceedings of a Conference on the Vatican Instruction on the Respect for Human Life.  Pope Paul VI Institute Press. Omaha, Nebraska, 1990.
  2. Hilgers TW:  The Medical Applications of Natural Family Planning: A Contemporary Approach to Women’s Health Care. Pope Paul VI Institute Press.  Omaha, Nebraska, 1991.
  3. Hilgers TW: The Scientific Foundations of the Ovulation Method.  Pope Paul VI Institute Press. Omaha, Nebraska 1995.               
  4. Hilgers TW, Prebil AM, Daly KD, Hilgers SK: The Picture Dictionary of the Creighton Model FertilityCareSystem, Pope Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, NE, 2001.
  5. Hilgers TW: The Creighton Model FertilityCareSystem, An Introductory Booklet for New Users. Pope Paul VI Institute Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, NE, 2002.
  6. Hilgers TW: Reproductive Anatomy and Physiology: A Primer for FertilityCare Professionals. Pope Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, NE, 2002.
  7. Hilgers TW, Daly KD, Hilgers SK, Prebil AM: The Creighton Model FertilityCareSystem: A Standardized Case Management Approach to Teaching. Book I — Basic Teaching Skills, 2nd Edition, Pope Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, NE, 2002.
  8. Hilgers TW, Hilgers SK, Prebil AM, Daly KD: The Creighton Model FertilityCareSystem: A Standardized Case Management Approach to Teaching. Book II — Advanced Teaching Skills, Pope Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, NE, 2003.
  9. Hilgers TW, Prebil AM, Daly KD, Hilgers SK: The Creighton Model FertilityCareSystem Core Curriculum, 2nd Edition, Pope Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, NE, 2003.
  10. Hilgers TW, The Medical and Surgical Practice of NaProTECHNOLOGY, Pope Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, NE 2004.

Curriculum Vitae: Book Chapters

  1. Hilgers TW: “Hormonal Profiles in Users of the Ovulation Method.” In: Santamaria J and Billings J, (Eds.) Human Love and Human Life. Polding Press. Melbourne, 1979.
  2. Hilgers TW: “An Obstetrician Looks at Natural Family Planning.” In: Santamaria J and Billings J, (Eds.) Human Love and Human Life. Polding Press. Melbourne, 1979.
  3. Hilgers TW: “The New Technologies of Birth.” In: McCarthy D (ed.): The New Technologies of Birth and Death: Medical, Legal and Moral Dimensions. Proceedings of the Workshop for Bishops of the United States and Canada. Dallas, Texas, January 28-31, 1980. Pope John XXIII Medical-Moral Research and Education Center, St. Louis, MO, 1980.
  4. Hilgers TW: “Human Sexuality: Contemporary Lessons to be Learned.” In: Proceedings of Sixth Combined Conference of the Guild of St. Luke and SS. Cosmas and Damian. Horizons of Medicine — Manipulation of Man. Masterton, New Zealand. Nov. 1-4, 1984.
  5. Hilgers TW: “The Correlation of Ovulation and Other Biologic Parameters with Natural Family Planning.” In: The Natural Regulation of Female Fertility. The Proceedings of an International Conference on Natural Fertility Regulation held March 19-21, 1988, Bologna, Italy. Tecnoprint, via del Legatore 3, Bologna, Italy, pp. 131-142.
  6. Hilgers TW: “ The Psychosexual Aspects of Natural Family Planning.” In: The Natural Regulation of Female Fertility. The Proceedings of an International Conference on Natural Fertility Regulation held March 19-21, 1988, Bologna, Italy. Tecnoprint, via del Legatore 3, Bologna, Italy, pp. 181-192.
  7. Hilgers TW: “The Ovulation Method and the Study of Reproductive Abnormalities.” In: The Proceedings of the Workshop on Natural Fertility Regulation Today. Sponsored by the      World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. March 17-19, 1988. Rome, Italy, In Press.
  8. Hilgers TW: “Expanding our Human Sexual Horizons.” In: The Gift of Life, Wallace M and Hilgers TW, (Eds.). Pope Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, Nebraska, 1990, pp. 41-48.
  9. Hilgers TW: “Recent Advances in Infertility Evaluation and Treatment.” In: The Gift of Life, Wallace M and Hilgers TW (Eds.); Pope Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, NE, 1990, pp. 127-148.
  10. Hilgers TW: “Family Planning Issues: Norplant, Uterine Isolation and Natural Family Planning.” In: Proceedings of the Eleventh Bishops Workshop — The Interaction of Catholic Bioethics and Secular Society. Edited by Russell Smith, Pope John Center, Braintree, MA, February 5, 1992.
  11. Hilgers TW: “Creighton Model Natural Family Planning.” In: The Natural Methods for the Regulation of Fertility: The Authentic Alternative, Trujillo AL and Sgreccia E, (Eds.). Vita e Pensiero, Milano, 1994, pp. 154-168.
  12. Hilgers TW: “Prenatal and Pre-Implantation Genetic Diagnosis: Duty or Eugenic Prelude?” In: Human Genome, Human Person and the Society of the Future: The Proceedings of Fourth Assembly Pontifical Academy for Life. Corea J and Sgreccia E (Eds.). Vatican City. Feb. 23-25, 1998. Librareria Editrice Vaticana 000120 Citta del Vaticano, 1999, pp. 173-189.

Curriculum Vitae: Films and Videotapes

  1. Hilgers TW: The Beginnings of Human Life. Creighton University Natural Family Planning Education and Research Center, Omaha, NE,1982 — Videotape.
  2. Hilgers TW: The Emotional Aspects of Infertility: Experiences of Three Couples. Creighton University Natural Family Planning Education and Research Center, Omaha, NE, 1985 — Videotape.
  3. Hilgers TW: Encountering Human Ecology: Natural Family Planning. Pope Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, NE, 1989 — Videotape.
  4. Hilgers TW: Living Proof: A Visual Encounter with the Unborn. Pope Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, NE, 29 minutes, 1990 — Videotape.
  5. Hilgers TW: Visualization Techniques in Infertility.  Pope Paul VI Institute Press. Omaha, NE, 1992, Videotape.
  6. Hilgers TW: Living Proof in 3-D: Putting a Face on the Unborn Human Person. Pope Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, NE, 2000, 15 minutes, Videotape.

Curriculum Vitae: Articles

  1. Hilgers TW: “Luteal Phase Defects: Diagnosis and Implications.” In: Seminars in Obstetrics and Gynecology 1971-1972. A publication of the Mayo Graduate School of Medicine. Mayo Clinic. Rochester, Minnesota, 1972.
  2. Hilgers TW: “Human Reproduction: Three Issues for the Moral Theologian.” Theological Studies. 38:136-152, March, 1977.
  3. Hilgers TW: “The Protection Afforded by the Cervical Mucus in Human Reproduction” Bull. Nat. Fam. Plan. Council Vict. 4:4-12. September, 1977.
  4. Hilgers TW: “The Ovulation Method: Ten Years of Research” Linacre Quarterly. November, 1978.
  5. Hilgers TW, Abraham GE and Cavanagh D: “Natural Family Planning-I. The Peak Mucus Symptom and Estimated Time Of Ovulation” Obstet. Gynecol. 52:575-582, 1978.
  6. Bailey AJ, Hilgers TW: “Feminine Hygiene Products: A Catalog with Commentary.” Int. Rev. Nat. Fam. Plan. 2:233-244, 1978.
  7. Hilgers TW, Prebil AM “The Ovulation Method — Vulvar Observations as an Index of Fertility/Infertility.” Obstet. Gynecol. 53:12-22, 1979.
  8. Hilgers TW and Bailey AJ: “Natural Family Planning. Quality Control through Applied Research.” In: Proceedings of an NIH Conference on Natural Family Planning. Bethesda, MD, June 1979.
  9. Hilgers TW and Bailey AJ: “Natural Family Planning II. — The BBT and Estimated Time of Ovulation.” Obstet. Gynecol. 55:333-339, 1980.
  10. Hilgers TW: “A Critical Evaluation of Effectiveness Studies in Natural Family Planning.” In: Proceedings of an International Symposium on Natural Family Planning sponsored by the World Health Organization. Dublin, Ireland, October 8-9, 1979.
  11. Hilgers TW, Daly KD, Prebil AM and Hilgers SK: “Natural Family Planning III. — Intermenstrual Symptoms and Estimated Time of Ovulation.” Obstet. Gynecol. 58:345-350, 1981.
  12. Hilgers TW, Bailey AJ, Prebil AM and Hilgers SK: “Natural Family Planning IV. — The Identification of Postovulatory Infertility.” Obstet. Gynecol. 58:345-350, 1981.
  13. Hilgers TW, Prebil AM, Hilgers SK and Daly KD: “The Occurrence of Ovulation at the Midcycle.” Int. Rev. Nat. Fam. Plan. 4:227, 1980.
  14. Vrbicky KW, Wells IC, Hilgers TW, Kable WT, Baumstark JS and Elias CJ: “Evidence for the Involvement of Beta-Endorphin in the Human Menstrual Cycle.” Fertil. Steril. 38: 701-704, 1982.
  15. Hilgers TW: “The American Academy of Natural Family Planning.” Int. Rev. Nat. Fam. Plan. 7:306-317, 1983.
  16. Hilgers TW: “Continuous Mucus in the Use of the Ovulation Method” Int. Rev. Nat. Fam. Plan. 7:326-341, 1983.30. Hilgers TW: “Current Research in Cervical Mucus.” In: Bernard C (Ed.) Proceedings of the World Conference on the Family of Asia and Australia. Madras India, Jan. 1983. pp.105-112.
  17. Hilgers TW: “The Statistical Evaluation of Natural Methods of Family Planning.” Int. Rev. Nat. Fam. Plan. 8:226, 1984.
  18. McLean PA and Hilgers TW: “Ovulation Method Charting in Patients Taking Danazol.” Int. Rev. Nat. Fam. Plan. 9:168, 1985.
  19. Slacks RM and Hilgers TW: “Advertising Trends in Major Journals of Obstetrics and Gynecology”: 1983. Int. Rev. Nat. Fam. Plan. 9:292, Winter 1985.
  20. Hilgers TW: “Professional Program Development in Natural Family Planning”. Linacre Quarterly. 53:42-49, Feb. 1986.
  21. LaBarber SA, LaBarber LP, Hilgers TW: “Impact of the NFPP Educational Program on Interns and their Families” Int. Rev. Nat. Fam. Plan. No. 11: 255, 1987.
  22. Hilgers TW: “The Objective Assessment of the Vulvar Mucus Cycle.” Int. Rev. Nat. Fam. Plan. 250-258, Fall 1988.
  23. Cvetkovich LL, Hilgers TW, Gentrup BB: “Continuous      Mucus Correlation of Point of Change with Preovulatory Rise in Estradiol-17β.” Int. Rev. Nat. Fam. Plan. 12:340-352, 1988.
  24. Ricaurte E and Hilgers TW: Complications of 32% Dextran 70 When Used as an Antiadhesion Adjuvant.” J. Repro. Med.,Vol. 34, 8:535-539, Aug. 1989.
  25. Hilgers TW, Abraham GE and Prebil, A.M: "The Length of the Luteal Phase”. Int. Rev. Nat. Fam. Plan. 13:99, 1989.
  26. Hilgers TW, Dvorak AD, Tamisiea DF, Ellis RL and Yaksich PJ: “Sonographic Definition of the Empty Follicle Syndrome” J. Ultrasound Med. 8:411-416, 1989.
  27. Hilgers TW: “The Use of Preovulatory Subcutaneous ‘Booster’ GnRH (self-administered) for Ovulation Induction.” (Abstract). Presented at: Symposium on Modes of Action of GnRH and GnRH Analogs. Serono Symposia, February 26 — March 2, 1991, Scottsdale, AZ.
  28. Hilgers TW: “Successful Pregnancy Outcome in Severe Oligospermia with Pulsatile IV GnRH.” (Abstract). Presented at: Symposium on Modes of Action of GnRH and GnRH Analogs. Serono Symposia, February 26 — March, 1991, Scottsdale, AZ.
  29. Hilgers TW: “Successful Pregnancies in Kallman’s Syndrome Using Pulsatile IV GnRH.” (Abstract). Presented at: Symposium on Modes of Action of GnRH and GnRH Analogs. Serono Symposia, February 26 — March 2, 1991, Scottsdale, AZ.
  30. Vasiliades J, Hilgers TW, Gentrup B, Remsburg J: “Increased Estradiol Concentration of Unknown Origin.” Clinical Chemistry. 37:2152, 1991.
  31. Hilgers TW: “A Simple, Safe Technique for Placement of the Veress Needle and Trochar in Laparoscopy” J. Lap. Surg. Vol. 2, 4:189-192, 1992.
  32. Hilgers TW, Daly KD, Prebil AM and Hilgers SK: “Cumulative Pregnancy Rates in Patients with Apparently Normal Fertility in Fertility-Focused Intercourse” J. Repro. Med., Vol. 37, 10:864-866, Oct. 1992.
  33. Hilgers TW, Kimball CR, Keck SJ, Dvorak AD and Tamisiea DF: “Assessment of the Empty Follicle Syndrome by Transvaginal Sonography” J. Ultrasound. Med. 11:313-316, 1992.
  34. Hilgers TW: “Norplant” Linacre Quarterly 60:64, 1993.
  35. Hilgers TW: “Life...the (Significant) Other Side of the Coin” Linacre Quarterly 60:78-81, 1993.
  36. Hilgers TW: “Scientific Research on the Methods of Diagnosing Fertility." Presented at the Theological and Pastoral Congress for the 25th Anniversary of Humanae Vitae, Vatican City State, Nov. 24-26, 1993.
  37. Hilgers TW: “Uterine Isolation” Linacre Quarterly 1:82-87,  1994.
  38. Hilgers TW: “The Natural Methods for the Regulation of Fertility: The Authentic Alternative” Linacre Quarterly 62:52-59, 1995.
  39. Vasiliades J, Hilgers T, Gentrup B: “Long Term Stability of Hormones in Serum” Clinical Chemistry. 41: S59, July 18, 1995.
  40. Hilgers TW and Stanford JB: “Creighton Model NaProEducation Technology for Avoiding Pregnancy: Use Effectiveness” J. Repro. Med. 43: 495-502, June, 1998.
  41. Hilgers TW and Yeung P: "Intratubal Pressure Before and After Transcervical Catheterization of the Fallopian Tubes" Fertil. Steril. 1999; 72:174-8.
  42. Hilgers TW: “Reproductive Medicine and the Violation of the ‘Free Exercise’ Clause of the United States Constitution” Linacre Quarterly. 69: 79-86, 2002.

Curriculum Vitae: Poster Presentations

  1. Hilgers TW: Cervical Mucus Anomalies in Patients with Endometriosis. The Second International Symposium on Endometriosis. May 1-3, 1989, Houston, TX
  2. Hilgers TW: Successful Pregnancy Outcome in Severe Oligospermia with Pulsatile GnRH. Symposium on Modes of Action of GnRH and GnRH Analogs, February 26 — March 2, 1991, Scottsdale, AZ
  3. Hilgers TW: Successful Pregnancies in Kallmann Syndrome using Pulsatile GnRH. Symposium on Modes of Action of GnRH and GnRH Analogs, February 26 — March 2, 1991, Scottsdale, AZ
  4. Hilgers TW: The Use of Preovulatory Subcutaneous “Booster” GnRH (Self-Administered) for Ovulation Induction. Symposium on      Modes of Action on GnRH and GnRH Analogs, February 26 — March 2, 1991, Scottsdale,      AZ
  5. Hilgers TW, Yaksich P, Keck S, Fong N: Outcome of Pregnancy by Status of Dominant Follicle as Evaluated by Ultrasound. Ovulation Induction: Basic Science and Clinical Advances — An International Conference. A Ferring Symposium, January 20-22, 1994, Palm Beach, FL
  6. Hilgers TW, Yaksich P, Keck S and Fong N: A Comprehensive Classification of Ovulation Disorders      in a Subfertility Population as Defined by Ultrasound. Ovulation Induction: Basic Science and Clinical Advances — An International Conference. A Ferring Symp. Jan.20-22, 1994, Palm Beach, FL
  7. Hilgers TW: Hormonal Correlates to Sonographically Identified Ovulatory Defects. 44th Annual Convention. American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine. San Francisco, CA, April 3-4, 2000.

Curriculum Vitae: Oral Presentations

  1. Hilgers TW: Pregnancy Achievement and Outcome In Sonographically Observed Spontaneous Ovulation. 44th Annual Convention. American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine. San Francisco, CA, April 4, 2000.
  2. Hilgers TW: The Sonographic Assessment of the Cervix Following Cervical Cerclage. 44th Annual Convention. American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine. San Francisco, CA, April 4, 2000.

Peer-Reviewed and Academic References as a Foundation to NaProTECHNOLOGY

A. Scientific Foundations of the Creighton Model

  1. Pommerenke WT: American Journal of Obstet Gynecol 52: 1023, 1946.
  2. Rydberg E: Acta. Obstet Gynec Scand 29 (fac.1):127, 1948.
  3. Cohen MR, Stein IF and Kaye BM: Spinnbarkeit: A Characteristic of Cervical Mucus. Fertil Steril 3: 201, 1952.
  4. Smith WT: The Pathology and Treatment of Leucorrhea, Churchill, London, 1855.
  5. Sims JM: British Medical Journal, 2: 465-492, 1868.
  6. Billings EL and Westmore A: The Billings Method: controlling Fertility Without Drugs or Devices. Random House, New York, New York, 1980.
  7. Roland M: A Simple Test for the Determination of Ovulation, Estrogen Activity and Early Pregnancy Using the Cervical Mucus Secretion. Am J Obstet Gynecol 63: 81-89, 1952.
  8. Zondek B and Rosen S: Cervical Mucus Arborization: Its Use in the Determination of Corpus Luteum Function. Obstet Gynecol 3: 463-470, 1954.
  9. Insler V, Melmed H, Eichenbrenner I., et al: The Cervical Score: A Simple Semiquantative Method for Monitoring of the Menstrual Cycle. Int J Gynec Obstet 10: 223-228, 1972.
  10. Clift AF: Early Studies on the Rheology of Cervical Mucus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 134: 829-832, 1979.
  11. Cervical Mucus: Present State of Knowledge, In: Cervical Mucus in Human Reproduction. World Health Organization—Colloquium, Published Proceedings, Geneva, Switzerland, 1972.
  12. Hilgers TW and Prebil AM: The Ovulation Method—Vulvar Observations as an Index of Fertility/Infertility. Obstet Gynecol 53: 12-22, 1979.
  13. Faccioli G, Cortesi S, and Calderoni P: Structure of Human Cervical Mucus Correlation with Plasma Ovarian Hormone Levels. Acta Europaea Fertilitatis. 14:41-50, 1983.
  14. Garcia N, Giacchi E, Campo S, et al: Canalization of Human Cervical Mucus. Obstet Gynecol 64: 164-169, 1984.
  15. Odeblad E: Cervical Factors. Int Rev Nat Fam Plan 5: 153-162, 1981.
  16. Odeblad E: The Mucus Symptoms Length and Subphases During the Fertile Age. Int Rev Nat Fam Plan 10: 303-313, 1986.
  17. Odeblad E: The Biophysical Properties of the Cervical-Vaginal Secretions. Int Rev Nat Fam Plan 7: 1-56, 1983.
  18. Odeblad E.: The Discovery of Different Types of Cervical Mucus and the Billings Ovulation Method. Bulletin of the Natural Family Planning Council of Victoria. 21: 3-34, Sept. 1994.
  19. Odeblad E. Molecular Biology of the Cyclic Changes of Cervical Mucus. Paper presented at the meeting “Scientific Bases and Problems of Natural Fertility Regulation,” sponsored by the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, Vatican City, Italy, Nov. 16, Italy, Nov. 16, 1994.
  20. Rudolfsson C: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Cytometric Studies on Mucus from Single Cervical Glands. Int J Fert 16: 147-150, 1971.
  21. Faccioli G. Hormonal Bases of the Correspondence Between Microscopic and Ultra Microscopic Features of Human Cervical Mucus. Acta Europaea Fertilitatis, 15: 131-136, 1984.
  22. Faccioli G: Preliminary Results on the Scanning Electron Microscopic Structure of Infertile Human Cervical Mucus. Acta Europaea Fertilitatis, 15: 381-385, 1984.
  23. Takano N, Maekawa I, Takamizawa H: Ultrastructure of Human Cervical Mucus Observed by Cryo-scanning Electron Microscopy. Fertil Steril 32: 604-607, 1979.
  24. Ferin J, Thomas, and Johansson EDB: Ovulation Detection. In: Human Reproduction: Conception and Contraception, (Hafez, E.S.E, and Evans, T.N., Eds.) Harper and Row, Hagerstown, Maryland, 1973.
  25. Moghissi KS, Syner FN, and Evans TN: A Composite Picture of the Menstrual Cycle. Am J Obstet Gynecol 114: 405-416, 1972.
  26. Insler V, Glezerman M, Zeidel L, et al: Fertil Steril 33: 288-293, 1980.
  27. Brown JB, Harisson P, Smith MA, et al: Correlations Between the Mucus Symptoms and the Hormonal Markers of Fertility Throughout Reproductive Life. Ovulation Method Research and Reference Centre of Australia, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 1981.
  28. Billings EL, Billings JJ, Brown JB, et al: Symptoms and Hormonal Changes Accompanying Ovulation. The Lancet, February 5, pp. 282-284, 1972.
  29. Flynn AM, and Lynch SS: Cervical Mucus Identification of the Fertile Phase of the Menstrual Cycle. Brit J Obstet Gynaecol 83:545, 1976.
  30. Casey JH: The Correlation Between Midcycle Hormonal Profiles, Cervical Mucus and Ovulation in Normal Women. In:Human Love and Human Life. Santamaria, J.N. and Billings, J.J., Eds. The Polding Press, Melbourne Australia, p68, 1979.
  31. Hilgers TW, Abraham GE, and Cavanagh D: Natural Family Planning-I. The Peak Symptom and Estimated Time of Ovulation. Obstet Gynecol 52: 575-582, 1978.
  32. Cortesi S, Rigoni G, Zen F, et al: Correlation of Plasma Gonadatropins and Ovarian Steroid Pattern with Symptomatic Changes in Cervical Mucus During the Menstrual Cycle in Normal Cycling Women. Contraception. 23: 635-641, 1981.
  33. Morishita H, Hashimoto T, Mitani H, et al: Cervical Mucus and Prediction of the Time of Ovulation. Gyn Obstet Invest 10: 157-162, 1979.
  34. Hilgers TW: Hormonal Profiles in Users of the Ovulation Method. In: Human Love and Human Life. Santamaria, J.N. and Billings, J.J., Eds. The Polding Press, Melbourne, Australia, p59, 1979.
  35. Leader A, Wiseman D, Taylor PJ: The Prediction of Ovulation: A Comparison of the Basal Body Temperature Graph, Cervical Mucus Score and Realtime Pelvic Ultrasonography. Fertil Steril 43: 385-388, 1985.
  36. Daily DC, Reuter K, Cohen S, et al: Follicle Size by Ultrasound versus Cervical Mucus Quality: Normal and Abnormal Patterns in Spontaneous Cycles. Fertil Steril 51: 598-603, 1989.
  37. Nulsen J, Wheeler C, Ausmanas M, et al: Cervical Mucus Changes in Relationship to Urinary Luteinizing Hormone. Fertil Steril 48: 783-786, 1987.
  38. Depares J, Ryder, REJ, Walker SM, et al: Ovarian Ultrasonography Highlights Precision of Symptoms of Ovulation as Markers of Ovulation. Brit Med J 292: 1562, 1986.
  39. Taylor RS, Woods JB and Guapo M.: Correlation of Vaginal Hormonal Cytograms with Cervical Mucus Symptoms. J Reprod Med 31, 1986.
  40. Hilgers, TW, Prebil AM, Daly KD, Hilgers SK: Observation of Mucus Survey. St. Louis University Natural Family Planning Center, 1977 (unpublished manuscript).
  41. Hilgers TW, Prebil AM: The Statistical Parameters of the Mucus Cycle: A Study of 600 Cycles. St. Louis Univeristy Natural Family Planning Center, 1977 (unpublished manuscript).
  42. Hilgers TW: Psychodynamics of the Use of the Ovulation Method. Unpublished manuscript. Creighton University Natural Family Planning Education and Research Center. Omaha, Nebraska, 1978.
  43. Fehring RJ, Lawrence DM, Sauvage CM: Self-esteem, Spiritual Well-being and Intimacy: A Comparison Among Couples Using NFP and Oral Contraceptives. Int Rev Nat Fam Plan 13 (3/4): 227-236, 1989.
  44. Fehring RJ and Lawrence DM: Spiritual Well-being, Self-esteem and Intimacy Among Couples Using Natural Family Planning. Linacre Quarterly. pp. 18-29, August 1994.
  45. Hilgers TW: The Statistical Evaluation of Natural Methods of Family Planning. Int Rev Nat Fam Plan 8: 226-264, 1984.
  46. Tietze C and Lewit S: Statistical Evaluation of Contraceptive Methods: Use-Effectiveness and Extended Use-Effectiveness. Demography 5: 931, 1968.
  47. Hilgers TW and Stanford JB: The Use-Effectiveness to Avoid Pregnancy of the Creighton Model NaProEducation Technology: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Trials. J Repro Med 43:495-502, June1998.
  48. Hilgers TW, Prebil AM, and Daly KD: The Effectiveness of the Ovulation Method as a Means of Achieving and Avoiding Pregnancy. Paper presented at the Education Phase III Continuing Education Conference for Natural Family Planning Practitioners, Mercy Fontenelle Center, Omaha, Nebraska, July 1980.
  49. Doud J: Use Effectiveness of the Creighton Model of NFP. Int Rev Nat Fam Plan 9:54-72, 1985.
  50. Howard MP: Use Effectiveness of the Ovulation Method (Creighton Model) of Natural Family Planning. Paper presented at the Ninth Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Natural Family Planning, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, July 1990.
  51. Fehring RJ, Lawrence D, and Philpot C: Use Effectiveness of the Creighton Model Ovulation Method of Natural Family Planning. J Obstet Gynecol, and Neonat Nurs 23: 303-309, 1994.
  52. Tietze C: The Clinical Effectiveness of Contraceptive Methods. Am J Obstet Gynecol 78: 650-656, 1959.
  53. Tietze C and Lewit S: The IUD and the Pill: Extended Use-Effectiveness. Fam Plan Perspec 3: 53-55, 1971.
  54. Tietze C and Lewit S: Use Effectiveness of Oral and Intrauterine Contraception. Fertil Steril 22:508-513, 1971.
  55. Marshall J: A Field Trial of the Basal Body Temperature Method of Regulation of Births. The Lancet, pp8-10, July 6,1968.
  56. Klaus H: Natural Family Planning: A Review. Obstet Gynecol Surv 37: 128-150, 1982.
  57. Hilgers TW, Daly KD, Prebil AM, et al: Cumulative Pregnancy Rates in Patients with Apparently Normal Fertility and Fertility-Focused Intercourse. J Reprod Med10: 864-866, 1992.
  58. Hilgers TW, Prebil AM, Daly KD, and Hilgers SK: The Picture Dictionary of the CREIGHTON MODEL FertilityCareTMSystem. Pope Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, Nebraska, 1999.

B. Trends and Deficiencies In Infertility Treatment

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  13. Guermandi E, Vegetti W, Bianchi M, et al: Reliability of Ovulation Tests in Infertile Women. Obstet Gynecol 97:92-96, 2001.
  14. Al-Badawi IA, Fluker MR, Bebbington MW: Diagnostic Laparoscopy in Infertile Women with Normal Hysterosalpingograms. J Reprod Med 44:953-957, 1999.
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  16. Corson SL, Cheng A, Gutmann JN: Laparoscopy in the “Normal” Infertile Patient: A Question Revisited.” J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 7:317-324, 2000.
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  18. Agarwal SK, Buyalos RP: Clomiphene Citrate with Intrauterine Insemination: Is it Effective Therapy in Women Above the Age of 3 Years. Fertil Steril 65:759-763, 1996.
  19. Meeks GR, McDonald J, Gookin K, et al: Insemination with Fresh Donor Sperm. Obstet Gynecol 68:527-530, 1986.
  20. Yeh J, Seibel MM: Artificial Insemination with Donor Sperm: A Review of 108 Patients. Obstet Gynecol 70:313-316, 1987.
  21. Bradshaw KD, Guzick DS, Grun B, et al: Cumulative Pregnancy Rates for Donor Insemination According to Ovulatory Function and Tubal Status. Fertil Steril 48:1051-1054, 1987.
  22. Kovacs G, Baker G, Burger H, et al: Artificial Insemination with Cryopreserved Donor Semen: A Decade of Experience. Brit J Obstet Gynaecol 95:354-360, 1988.
  23. Strong C, Schinfeld JS: The Single Woman ad Artificial Insemination by Donor. J Reprod Med 29:293-299, 1984.
  24. McGuire M, Alexander NJ: Artificial Insemination of Single Women. Fertil Steril 43:182-184, 1985.
  25. Wendland CL, Byrn F, Hill C: Donor Insemination : A Comparison of Lesbian Couples, Heterosexual Couples and Single Women. Fertil Steril 65:764-770, 1996.
  26. 2001 Assisted Reproductive Technology Success Rates: National Summary and Fertility Clinic Reports. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. December, 2003.
  27. Hill GA, Bryan S, Herbert CM, et al: Complications of Pregnancy in Infertile Couples: Routine Treatment vs. Assisted Reproduction. Obstet Gynecol 75:790-794, 1999.
  28. Lipitz S, Seidman DS, Alkalay M, et al: The Effect of Fertility Drugs and In vitro Methods on the Outcome of 106 Triplet Pregnancies. Fertil Steril 60:1031-1034, 1993.
  29. Schiev LA, Peterson HB, Meikle SF, et al: Live-Birth Rates and Multiple-Birth Risk Using In Vitro Fertilization. JAMA 282:1832-1838, 1999.
  30. Contribution of Assisted Reproductive Technology and Ovulation-Inducing Drugs to Triplet and High-Order Multiple Births – United States, 1980-1997. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 49:535-538, June 23, 2000.
  31. Hazekamp J, Bergh C, Wennerholm U-B, et al: Avoiding Multiple Pregnancies in ART: Considerations of New Strategies. Hum Reprod 15:1217-1219, 2000.
  32. Keith LG, Oleszczuk JJ: Triplet Births in the United States: An Epidemic of High-Risk Pregnancies. J Reprod Med 47:259-265, 2002.
  33. Nowak E, Blickstein I, Papiernik E, et al: Iatrogenic Multiple Pregnancies: Do They Complicate Perinatal Care? J Reprod Med 48:601-609, 2003.
  34. Lynch A, McDuffie R, Murphy J, et al: Assisted Reproductive Interventions and Multiple Birth. Obstet Gynecol 97:195-200, 2001.
  35. Nijs M, Geerts L, Roosendaal EV: Prevention of Multiple Pregnancies in an In Vitro Fertilization Program. Fertil Steril 59:1245-1250, 1993.
  36. Albano C, Platteau P, Nogueira D, et al: Avoidance of Multiple Pregnancies after Ovulation Induction by Supernumerary Preovulatory Follicular Reduction. Fertil Steril 76:820-822, 2001.
  37. Brandes JM, Itskovitz J, Temor-Tritsch IE, et al: Reduction of the Number of Embryos in a Multiple Pregnancy: Quintuplet to Triplet. Fertil Steril 48:326-327, 1987.
  38. Shalev J, Frenkel Y, Goldenberg M, et al: Selective Reduction in Multiple Gestations: Pregnancy Outcome after Transvaginal and Transabdominal Needle-Guided Procedures. Fertil Steril 52:416-420, 1989.
  39. Papiernik E, Grange G, Zeitlin J: Should Multi-Fetal Pregnancy Reduction be Used for Prevention of Pre-term Deliveries in Triplet or High Order Multiple Pregnancies? J Perinat Med 26:365-370, 1998.
  40. Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome. The Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Fertil Steril 80:1309-1314, 2003.
  41. Dessole S, Rubattu G, Ambrosini G, et al: Blood Loss Following Non-Complicated Transvaginal Ooocyte Retrieval for In Vitro Fertilization. Fertil Steril 76:205-206, 2001.
  42. Meaker SR: Ovarian Resection for the Relief of Sterility. Fertil Steril 1:293-305, 1950.
  43. MacLeod SC, Milton DM, Parker AS, et al: Experience with Induction of Ovulation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 108:814-823, 1970.
  44. Buyalos RP, Lee CT: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Pathophysiology and Outcome with In Vitro Fertilization. Fertil Steril 65:1-10, 1996.
  45. Child TJ, Abdul-Jalil AK, Guleki B, et al: In Vitro Maturation and Fertilization of Oocytes from Unstimulated Normal Ovaries, Polycystic Ovaries and Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Fertil Steril 76:936-942, 2001.
  46. Jones HW, Rock JA: Reparative and Constructive Surgery of the Female Genital Tract. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore/London, 1983.
  47. Barnhart K, Dunsmoor-Su R, Coutfifaris C: The Effect of Endometriosis on In Vitro Fertilization. Fertil Steril 77:1148-1155, 2002.
  48. Gomel V: Salpingostomy by Microsurgery. Fertil Steril 29:380-387, 1978.
  49. Stewart CR, Cooke ID: Pregnancy Following Infertility. Clin Obstet Gynaecol 1:449-475, 1974.
  50. Hack M, Brish M, Serr DM, et al: Outcome of Pregnancy After Induced Ovulation. JAMA 211:791-797, 1970.
  51. Hack M, Brish M, Serr DM, et al: Outcome of Pregnancy After Induced Ovulation. Followup of Pregnancies in Children Born after Clomiphene Therapy. JAMA 220:1329-1333, 1972.
  52. Need JA, Bell B, Meffin E, et al: Preeclampsia in Pregnancies from Donor Inseminations. J Reprod Immunol 5:329-338, 1983.
  53. Varma TR, Patel RH: Outcome of Pregnancy Following Investigation and Treatment of Infertility. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 25:113-120, 1987.
  54. Varma TR, Patel RH, Bhathenia RK: Outcome of Pregnancy After Infertility. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 67:115-119, 1988.
  55. Williams MA, Goldman MV, Mittendorf R, et al: Subfertility and the Risk of Low Birth Weight. Fertil Steril 56:668-671, 1991
  56. Smith GN, Walker M, Tessier JL, et al: Increased Incidence of Preeclampsia in Women Conceiving by Intrauterine Insemination with Donor vs. Partner Sperm for Treatment of Primary Infertility. Am J Obstet Gynecol 178:417-418, 1998.
  57. Need JA, Bell B, Meffin E, et al: Preeclampsia in Pregnancy from Donor Inseminations. J Reprod Immunol 5:329-338, 1983.
  58. Salha O, Sharma V, Dada T, et al: The Influence of Donating Gametes on the Incidence of Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy. Hum Reprod 14:2268-2273, 1999.
  59. Serour GI, Aboulghar M, Mansour R, et al: Complications of Medically-Assisted Conception in 3,500 Cycles. Fertil Steril 70:638-642, 1998.
  60. Zuppa AA, Maragliano G, Scapillati ME, et al: Neonatal Outcome of Spontaneous and Assisted Twin Pregnancies. Europ J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Bio 95:68-72, 2001.
  61. Tan S-L, Doyle P, Campbell S, et al: Obstetric Outcome of In Vitro Fertilization Pregnancies Compared with Normally Conceived Pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 167:778-784, 1992.
  62. Seoud MA-F, Toner JP, Kruethoff C, et al: Outcome of Twin, Triplet and Quadruplet in In Vitro Fertilization Pregnancies: The Norfolk Experience. Fertil Steril 58:827-834, 1992.
  63. Doyle P, Beral V, Maconochie N: Preterm Delivery, Low Birth Weight and Small-for-Gestational-Age in Live Born Singleton Babies Resulting from In Vitro Fertilization. Hum Reprod 7:425-428, 1992.
  64. Fisch B, Harel L, Kaplan B, et al: Neonatal Assessment of Babies Conceived by In Vitro Fertilization. J Perinat 17:473-476, 1997.
  65. Tough SC, Greene CA, Svenson LW, et al: Effects of In Vitro Fertilization on Low Birth Weight, Pre-term Delivery and Multiple Birth. J Pediatr 136:618-622, 2000.
  66. Schiev LA, Meikle SF, Ferre C, et al: Low and Very Low Birth Weight in Infants Conceived with Use of Assisted Reproductive Technology. N Engl J Med 346:731-737, 2002.
  67. Reubinof BE, Samueloff A, Ben-Haim M, et al: Is the Obstetric Outcome of In Vitro Fertilized Singleton Gestations Different from Natural Ones? A Controlled Study. Fertil Steril 67:1077-1083, 1997.
  68. French In Vitro National: Pregnancies and Births Resulting from In Vitro Fertilization: French National Registry, Analysis of Data 1986-1990. Fertil Steril 64:746-756, 1995.
  69. Lynch A, McDuffey R, Murphy J, et al: Preeclampsia and Multiple Gestation: The Role of Assisted Reproductive Technologies. Obstet Gynecol 99:445-451, 2002.
  70. McFaul PB, Patel N, Mills J: An Audit of the Obstetric Outcome of 148 Consecutive Pregnancies from Assisted Conception: Implications for Neonatal Services. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 100:820-825, 1993.
  71. Stromberg B, Dahlquist G, Ericson A, et al: Neurological Sequelae in Children Born after In Vitro Fertilization: A Population-Based Study. Lancet 359:461-465, 2002.
  72. Macas E, Imthurn B, Keller PJ: Increased Incidence of Numerical Chromosome Abnormalities in Spermatazoa Injected into Human Oocytes by ICSI. Hum Reprod 16:115-120, 2001.
  73. Aboulghar H, Aboulghar M, Mansour R, et al: A Prospective Controlled Study of Karyotyping for 430 Consecutive Babies Conceived Through Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection. Fertil Steril 76:249-253, 2001.
  74. Hansen M, Kurinczuk JJ, Bower C, et al: The Risk of Major Birth Defects after Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection and In Vitro Fertilization. N Engl J Med 346:725-730, 2002.
  75. Sutcliffe AG, Taylor B, Saunders K, et al: Outcome in the Second Year of Life after In Vitro Fertilization by Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection: A UK Case-Controlled Study. Lancet 357:2080-2084, 2001.
  76. Wennerholm U-B, Bergh C, Hamburger L, et al: Obstetric Outcome of Pregnancies Following ICSI, Classified According to the Sperm Origin and Quality. Hum Reprod 15:1189-1194, 2000.
  77. Bonduelle M, Liebaers I, Deketelare V, et al: Neonatal Data on a Cohort of 2889 Infants Born after ICSI (1991-1999) and of 2995 Infants Born after IVF (1983-1999). Hum Reprod 17:671-694, 2002.
  78. Kovalevsky G, Rinauedo P, Coutifaris C: Do Assisted Reproductive Technologies Cause Adverse Fetal Outcomes? Fertil Steril 79:1270-1271, 2003.
  79. Salvatore P, Gariboldi S, Offidani A, et al: Psychopathology, Personality, and Marital Relationship in Patients Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization Procedures. Fertil Steril 75:1119-1125, 2001.
  80. Thadani VM: Clues from Research into Cross-Species Fertilization. Contemp OB/GYN 20:203-209, 1982.
  81. Corson SL, Batzer FR, Go KJ, et al: Correlations Between the Human Sperm-Hamster Egg Penetration Assay and In Vitro Fertilization Results. J Reprod Med 32:879-887, 1987.
  82. Margalioth EJ, Navot D, Laufer N, et al: Correlation Between the Zona-Free Hamster Egg Sperm Penetration Assay and Human In Vitro Fertilization. Fertil Steril 45:665-670, 1986.
  83. ACOG Committee Opinion. Committee on Ethics. Pre-Embryo Research: History, Scientific Background and Ethical Considerations. 136, April 1994.
  84. Hoffman DI, Zellman GL, Fair CC, et al: Cryo-Preserved Embryos in the United States and Their Availability for Research. Fertil Steril 79:1063-1069, 2003.
  85. Beyler SA, Meyer WR, Fritz MA: Disposition of Extra Embryos. Fertil Steril 74:213-215, 2000.
  86. Sauer MV: Indecent Proposal: $5,000 is not “Reasonable Compensation” for Oocyte Donors. Fertil Steril 71:7-8, 1999.
  87. Reuters. Babies from Thawed Ovarian Tissue by 2009 – Experts. June 30, 1999.
  88. Grady D: Pregnancy Created with Egg Nucleus of Infertile Women. thenewyorktimes.com October 14, 2003.
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  92. Sauer MV: Motherhood at Any Age? Egg Donation was not Intended for Everyone. Fertil Steril 69:187-188, 1998.
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C. Medical Risks of Infertility

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  3. Henkel A, Christensen B, Schinler AE: Endometriosis: A Clinically Malignant Disease. Euro J Obstet Gynecol Repro Bio 82: 209-211, 1999.
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  5. Zanetta G, Web MJ and Segura GW: Ureteral Endometriosis Diagnosed at Ureteroscopy. Obstet Gynecol 91: 857-859, 1998.
  6. Nackley AC, Jeko TR: Ureteral Displacement Associated with Pelvic Peritoneal Defects and Endometriosis. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 7: 131-133, 2000.
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  8. Loverro G, Cormio G, Greco P, Altomare D, Putignano G, Slevaggi L: Perforation of the Sigmoid Colon During Pregnancy: A Rare Complication of Endometriosis. J Gynecol Surg 15: 155-157, 1999.
  9. Halme J, Chafe W, Currie JL: Endometriosis with Massive Ascites. Obstet Gynecol 65: 591-592, 1985.
  10. Samora-Mata J, Feste JR: Endometriosis Ascites: A Case Report. JSLS 3: 229-231, 1999.
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  14. Nezhat C, Seidman DS, Nezhat F, Nezhat C: Laparoscopic Surgical Management of Diaphragmatic Endometriosis. Fertil Steril 69: 1048-1055, 1998.
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  31. Redwine DB: Ovarian Endometriosis: A Marker for More Extensive Pelvic and Intestinal Disease. Fertil Steril 72: 310-315, 1999.
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  38. Hunter MH, Sterrett JJ: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: It’s Not Just Infertility. Amer Fam Phys 62: 1079-1088, 2000.
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  40. Harlow BL, Signorello LB, Hall JE, Dailey C, Komaroff AL: Reproductive Correlates of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Am J Med 105: 95S-99S, 1998.
  41. Slowey MJ: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: New Perspective on an Old Problem. S Med J 94: 190-196, 2001.
  42. Crosby PDA, Rittmaster RS: Predictors of Clinical Response in Hirsute Women Treated with Spironolactone. Fertil Steril 55: 1076-1081, 1991.
  43. Young RL, Goldzieher JW, Elkind-Hirsch K: The Endocrine Effects of Spironolactone Used as an Anti-Androgen. Fertil Steril 48: 223-228, 1987.
  44. Pittaway DE, Maxson WS, Wentz AC: Spironolactone in Combination Drug Therapy for Unresponsive Hirsutism. Fertil Steril 43: 878-882, 1985.
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  241. Puebla RA, Greenblatt RB: Clomiphene Citrate in the Management of Ovulatory Uterine Bleeding. J Clin Endocrinol 24:863, 1964.
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  247. Greenblatt RB: Chemical Induction of Ovulation. Fertil Steril 12:402-404, 1961.
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  249. Naville AH, Kistner RW, Wheatley RE, et al: Induction of Ovulation with Clomiphene Citrate. Fertil Steril 15:290-309, 1964.
  250. Rivo E, Rock J: The Clinical Use of Clomiphene Citrate. Pac Med Surg 413-420, Nov.-Dec. 1965.
  251. Council on Drugs. American Medical Association. Evaluation of a New Ovulatory Stimulating Agent: Clomiphene Citrate (Clomid). JAMA 206:635-636, 1968.
  252. Adashi EY, Rock JA, Shapp KC, et al: Gestational Outcome of Clomiphene-Related Conceptions. Fertil Steril 31:620,1979.
  253. Ahlgren M, Kallen B, Rannevik G: Outcome of Pregnancy after Clomid Therapy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 53:371, 1976.
  254. Correy JF, Marsden DE, Schokman FCM: The Outcome of Pregnancy Resulting from Clomiphene-Induced Ovulation. Aust NZ – J Obstet Gynaecol 22:18, 1982.
  255. Hack M, Brish M, Serr DM, et al: Pregnancy after Induced Ovulation. Followup of Pregnancies in Children Born after Clomiphene Citrate. JAMA 220:1329, 1972.
  256. Harlap S: Ovulation Induction and Congenital Malformations. Lancet 2:961, 1976.
  257. Insler V, Zakut H, Serr DM: Cycle Pattern and Pregnancy Rate Following Clomiphene-Estrogen Therapy. Obstet Gynecol 41:602, 1973.
  258. Karow WG, Payne SA: Pregnancy after Clomiphene Citrate Treatment. Fertil Steril 19:351, 1968.
  259. Kurachi K, Aono T, Minagawa J, et al: Congenital Malformation of Newborn Infants after Clomiphene-Induced Ovulation. Fertil Steril 40:187, 1983.
  260. Asch RH, Greenblatt RB: Update on the Safety and Efficacy of Clomiphene Citrate as a Therapeutic Agent. J Reprod Med 17:175, 1976.
  261. Gemzell C, Diczfalusy E, Tillinger G: Clinical Effects of Human Pituitary Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH). J Clin Endocrinol Metab 18:1333, 1958.
  262. Donini P, Puzzvoli D, Montezemolo R: Purification of Gonadotropin from Human Menopausal Urine. Acta Endocrinol 45:321, 1964.
  263. Lunenfeld B, Sulimovizi S, Rabau E, et al: Compt Rend Soc Franc Gynecol 35:346, 1962.
  264. Schally AV, Kastin AJ, Arimura A: The Hypothalamus and Reproduction. Am J Obstet Gynecol 114:423, 1972.
  265. Belchetz PE, Plant TM, Nakai I, et al: Hypophyseal Responses to Continuous and Intermittent Delivery of Hypothalmic Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone. Science 202:631, 1978.
  266. Nakai Y, Plant TM, Hess DL, et al: On the Sites of the Negative and Positive Feedback Actions of Estradiol in the Control of Gonadotropin Secretion in the Rhesus Monkey. Endocrinology 102:1008, 1978.
  267. Knobil E, Plant TM, Wildt L, et al: Control of the Rhesus Monkey Menstrual Cycle: Permissive Role of Hypothalamic Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone. Science 270:1371, 1980.
  268. Leyendecker G, Wildt L, Hansmann M: Pregnancies Following Chronic Intermittent (Pulsatile) Administration of Gn-Rh by Means of a Portable Pump (“Zyklomat”) – A New Approach to the Treatment of Infertility and Hypothalamic Amenorrhea. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 51:1214, 1980.
  269. Dodge ST, Strickler, Keller DW: Ovulation Induction with Low Doses of Clomiphene Citrate. Obstet Gynecol 67:63S-65S, 1986.
  270. Shalev J, Goldenberg M, Kukia E, et al: Comparison of Five Clomiphene Citrate Dosage Regimens: Follicular Recruitment and Distribution in the Human Ovary. Fertil Steril 52:560-563, 1989.
  271. Barrett CTH, Hakim CA: Low-Dosage Clomiphene Therapy in the Treatment of Infertility Due to Defective Ovulation. S Afr Med J 48:1456-1458, 1974.
  272. Biljan MM, Mahutte NG, Tulandi T, et al: Prospective Randomized Double-Blind Trial of the Correlation Between Time of Administration and Anti-Estrogenic Effects of Clomiphene Citrate on Reproductive End Organs. Fertil Steril 71:633-638, 1999.
  273. Daley DC, Walters CA, Soto-Albors CE, et al: A Randomized Study of Dexamethasone and Ovulation Induction with Clomiphene Citrate. Fertil Steril 41:844-848, 1984.
  274. Lobo RA, Paul W, March CM, et al: Clomiphene and Dexamethasone in Women Unresponsive to Clomiphene Alone. Obstet Gynecol 60:497-501, 1982.
  275. Isaacs JD, Lincoln SR, Cowan BD: Extended Clomiphene Citrate (CC) and Prednisone for the Treatment of Chronic Anovulation Resistant to CC alone. Fertil Steril 67:641-643, 1997.
  276. Soto-Albors C, Daly DC, Ying Y-K: Efficacy of Human Menopausal Gonadotropins as Therapy for Abnormal Cervical Mucus. Fertil Steril 51:58-62, 1989. 
  277. Filicori M, Cognigni GE, Tabarelli C, et al: Stimulation and Growth of Antral Ovarian Follicles by Selective LH Activity Administration in Women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:1156-1161, 2002.
  278. Filicori M, Cognigni GE, Taraborreli S, et al: Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Pregnancy after Low-Dose Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Alone to Support Ovarian Folliculogenesis. Fertil Steril 78:414-416, 2002.
  279. Maxson WS, Pittaway DE, Herbert CM, et al: Antiestrogenic Effect of Clomiphene Citrate: Correlation with Serum Estradiol Concentrations. Fertil Steril 42:356-359, 1984.
  280. Massai MR, de Ziegler D, Lesorbre V, et al: Clomiphene Citrate Affects Cervical Mucus and Endometrial Morphology Independently of the Changes in Plasma Hormonal Levels Induced by Multiple Follicular Recruitment. Fertil Steril 59:1179-1186, 1993.
  281. Neely JL, Abate M, Swinker M, et al: The Effect of Doxycycline on Serum Levels of Ethinyl Estradiol, Norethindrone And Endogenous Progesterone. Obstet Gynecol 77:416-420, 1991.
  282. Zieman M, Nelson A: Combination OCs and Prescribed Antibiotics. The Female Patient. 27:40-41, 2002.
  283. Martin F, Peltonen J, Laatikainen T, et al: Excretion of Progesterone Metabolites and Estriol in Faeces from Pregnant Women During Ampicillin Administration. J Steroid Biochem 6:1339-1346, 1975.
  284. Hammond MG, Halme JK, Talbert LM: Factors Affecting the Pregnancy Rate in Clomiphene Citrate Induction of Ovulation. Obstet Gynecol 62:196-202, 1983.
  285. Hilgers TW: Successful Pregnancies in Kallmann Syndrome Using Pulsatile IV GnRH. Symposium on Modes of Action of GnRH and GnRH Analogs, February 26-March 2, 1991, Scottsdale, AZ.
  286. Hilgers TW: The Use of Preovulatory Subcutaneous “Booster” GnRH (Self-Administered) for Ovulation Induction. Symposium on Modes of Action on GnRH and GnRH Analogs, February 26-March 2, 1991, Scottsdale, AZ.
  287. Check JH, Diettreich C, Nowroozi K, et al: Comparison of Various Therapies for the Luteinized Unruptured Follicle Syndrome. Int J Fertil 37:33-40, 1992.
  288. Gompel A, Mauvais-Jarvis P: Induction of Ovulation with Pulsatile GnRH and Hypothalamic Amenorrhea. Hum Reprod 3:473-477, 1988.
  289. The Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Use of Clomiphene Citrate in Women. Fertil Steril 80:1302-1308, 2003.  
  290. Purvin V: Visual Disturbance Secondary to Clomiphene Citrate. Arch Ophthalmol 1130:482-484, 1995.
  291. Nakamura Y, Ono M, Yoshida Y, et al: The Effects of Clomiphene Citrate on the Endometrial Thickness of an Echogenic Pattern of the Endometrium. Fertil Steril 67:256-260, 1997.
  292. Eden JA, Place J, Carter GD, et al: The Effect of Clomiphene Citrate on Follicular Phase Increase on Endometrial Thickness and Uterine Volume. Obstet Gynecol 73:187-190, 1989.
  293. Check JH, Diettreich C, Luri D: The Effect of Consecutive Cycles of Clomiphene Citrate on Endometrial Thickness and Echo Pattern. Obstet Gynecol 86:341-345, 1995.
  294. Yagel S, Ben-Chetrit A, Anteby E, et al: The Effect of ethinyl estradiol on Endometrial Thickness and Uterine Volume During Ovulation Induction by Clomiphene Citrate. Fertil Steril 57:33-36, 1992.
  295. Gerli S, Gholami H, Manna A, et al: Use of Ethinyl Estradiol to Reverse the Anti-Estrogenic Effects of Clomiphene citrate in Patients Undergoing Intrauterine Insemination: A Comparative, Randomized Study. Fertil Steril 73:85-89, 2000.
  296. American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Practice Committee Report: A Technical Bulletin. Induction of Ovarian Follicle Development and Ovulation with Exogenous Gonadotropins. American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Birmingham, AL, 1998.
  297. Schaumburg H, Kaplan J, Windebank A, et al: Sensory Neuropathy from Pyridoxine Abuse: A New Mega-Vitamin Syndrome. N Engl J Med 309:445-448, 1983.
  298. Parry GJ, Bredesen DE: Sensory Neuropathy with Low-Dose Pyridoxine. Neurology 35:1466-1468, 1985.
  299. Berger AR, Schaumburg HH, Schroeder C, et al: Dose Response, Coasting, and Differential Fiber Vulnerability in Human Toxic Neuropathy: A Prospective Study of Pyridoxine Neurotoxicity. Neurology 42:1367-1370, 1992.
  300. Fukushima T, Tajima C, Fukuma K, et al: Tamoxifen in the Treatment of Infertility Associated with Luteal Phase Deficiency. Fertil Steril 37:755-761, 1982.
  301. Messinis IE, Nillius SJ: Comparison Between the Tamoxifen and Clomiphene for Induction of Ovulation. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 61:377-379, 1982.
  302. Fukushima T, Maeyama M: Action of Tamoxifen on Folliculogenesis in the Menstrual Cycle of Infertile Patients. Fertil Steril 40:210-214, 1983.
  303. Tajima C, Fukushima T: Endocrine Profiles in Tamoxifen-Induced Ovulatory Cycles. Fertil Steril 40:23-30, 1983.
  304. Rouman FJME, Doesburg WH, Rolland R: Treatment of Infertile Women with a Deficient Postcoital Test with Two Antiestrogens: Clomiphene and Tamoxifen. Fertil Steril 41:237-243, 1984.
  305. Tsuiki A, Uehara S, Kyono K, et al: Induction of Ovulation with an Estrogen Antagonist, Tamoxifen. Tohoku J Exp Med 144:21-31, 1984.
  306. Tajima C: Endocrine Profiles in Tamoxifen-Induced Conception Cycles. Fertil Steril 42:548-553, 1984.
  307. Tajima C: Luteotropic Effects of Tamoxifen in Infertile Women. Fertil Steril 42:223-227, 1984.
  308. Tajima C: Tamoxifen in the Treatment of Infertile Patients Associated with Inadequate Luteal Phase. Fertil Steril 41:470-472, 1984.
  309. Borenstein R, Shoham Z, Yemini M, et al: Tamoxifen Treatment in Women with Failure of Clomiphene citrate Therapy. Aust NZ J Obstet Gynaecol 29:173-175, 1989.
  310. Boostanfar R, Jain JK, Mishell DR: A Prospective Randomized Trial Comparing Clomiphene citrate with Tamoxifen Citrate for Ovulation Induction. Fertil Steril 75:1024-1026, 2001.
  311. Goto S, Takakura K, Nakanishi K, et al: Efficacy of Clomiphene Citrate and Cyclofenil for Infertile Women with Normal Ovulatory Cycles. Fertil Steril 76:409-411, 2001. 
  312. Yong EL, Glasier A, Hillier H, et al: Effect of Cyclofenil on Hormonal Dynamics, Follicular Development and Cervical Mucus in Normal and Oligomenorrheic Women. Hum Reprod 7:39-43, 1992.
  313. Ludwig M, Doody KG, Doody KM: Use of Recombinant Human Chorionic Gonadotropin in Ovulation Induction. Fertil Steril 79:1051-1059, 2003.
  314. Mitwally MFM, Casper RF: Use of an Aromatase Inhibitor for Induction of Ovulation in Patients with an Inadequate Response to Clomiphene Citrate. Fertil Steril 75:305-309, 2001.
  315. Mitwally MFM, Casper RF: Aromatase Inhibitors in Ovulation Induction. In: Aromatase: Update and New Roles in Reproductive Disease. Carr BR, Bulun SE (Eds) Sem Reprod Med 22:61-78, 2004.
  316. Mitwally MFM, Casper RF: Aromatase Inhibition Improves Ovarian Response to Follicle-Stimulating Hormone and Poor Responders. Fertil Steril 77:776-780, 2002. In this preliminary report, we demonstrate a potential benefit of aromatase inhibition for improving ovarian response to FSH in poor responders.
  317. Mitwally MF, Casper RF: Using Aromatase Inhibitors to Induce Ovulation in Breast CA Survivors. Contemporary OB/GYN. 49:73-83, 2004.
  318. Healey S, Tan SL, Tulandi T, et al: Effects of Letrozole on Superovulation with Gonadotropins in Women Undergoing Intrauterine Insemination. Fertil Steril 80:1325-1329, 2003.
  319. Kilic-Okman T, Kucuk M, Altaner S: Comparison of the Effects of Letrozole in Clomiphene Citrate on Ovarian Follicles, Endometrium and Hormone Levels in the Rat. Fertil Steril 80:1330-1332, 2003.
  320. Casper RF: Letrozole: Ovulation or Superovulation? Fertil Steril 80:1335-1337, 2003.
  321. Tourgeman DE: Ovulation Induction is not the Same as Superovulation: The Effect of Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators and Aromatase Inhibitors. 80:1333-1334, 2003.
  322. Healey S, Tan SL, Biljan MM, et al: Letrozole and Gonadotropins: What is the Ideal Patient Protocol? Fertil Steril 80:1339, 2003.
  323. Bulun SE: Ovulation Induction of Women with Infertility: A New Indication for Aromatase Inhibitors. Fertil Steril 80:1338, 2003.
  324. Mitwally MFM, Casper RF: SingleDose Administration of the Aromatase Inhibitor, Letrozole: A Simple and Convenient Effective Method of Ovulation Induction. Fertil Steril 76 (Suppl 1):594-595, 2001.
  325. Whittemore AS, Harris R, Itnyer J, et al: Characteristics Relating to Ovarian Cancer Risks: Collaborative Analysis of 12 U.S. Case-Controlled Studies. II. Invasive Epithelial Ovarian Cancers in White Women. Am J Epidem 136:1184-1203, 1992.
  326. Rossing MA, Daling JR, Weiss NS, et al: Ovarian Tumors in a Cohort of Infertile Women. N Engl J Med 331:771-776, 1994. This is a second article which introduced the topic. Prolonged use of clomiphene may increase the risk of a borderline or invasive ovarian tumor.
  327. Potashnik G, Lerner-Geva L, Genkin L, et al: Fertility Drugs and the Risk of Breast and Ovarian Cancers: Results of a Long-Term Followup Study. Fertil Steril 71:853-859, 1999.
  328. Modan B, Ron E, Lerner-Giva L, et al: Cancer Incidence in a Cohort of Infertile Women. Am J Epidem 147:1038-1042, 1998.
  329. Venn A, Watson L, Lumley J, et al: Breast and Ovarian Cancer Incidence After Infertility and In Vitro Fertilization. Lancet 346:995-1000, 1995.
  330. Ness RB, Cramer DW, Goodman MT, et al: Infertility, Infertility Drugs and Ovarian Cancer: A Pooled Analysis of Case-Control Studies. Am J Epidemiol 155:217-224, 2002.

E. Disorders of Human Ovulation

  1. Hackeloer BJ, Fleming R, Robinson HP, Adam AH, Coutts, JR: Correlation of Ultrasonic and Endocrinologic Assessment of Human Follicular Development. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 1979; 135:122-128.
  2. Fleischer AC, Daniell J, Rodier J, Lindsay AM, James AF, Jr: Sonographic Monitoring of Ovarian Follicular Development. J Clin Ultrasound, 1981; 9:275-280.
  3. Lenz S: Ultrasonic Study of Follicular Maturation, Ovulation and Development of Corpus Luteum During Normal Menstrual Cycles. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand, 1985; 64:15-19.
  4. Queenan JT, O’Brien GD, Baines LM, Simpson J, Collins NP, Campbell S: Ultrasound Scanning of Ovaries to Detect Ovulation in Women. Fertil Steril, 1980; 34:99-105.
  5. Nitschke-Dabelstein S, Hackeloer BJ, Sturm G: Ovulation and Corpus Luteum Formation Observed by Ultrasonography. Ultrasound Med Biol, 1980; 7:33-39.
  6. Koninckx PR, Renaer M, Brosens IA: Origin of Peritoneal Fluid of Women: An Ovarian Exudation Product. Br J Obstet Gynaecol, 1980; 87:177-183.
  7. Pierson RA, Martinuk SD, Chizen DR, Simpson CW: Ultrasonic Visualization of Human Ovulation. In Evers JHL and Heineman MJ, Eds. From Ovulation to Implantation. Elsevier Science Publishers, New York, 1990; 73-79.
  8. Hilgers TW, Dvorak AD, Tamisiea DF, Ellis RL, Yaksich PJ: Sonographic Definition of the Empty Follicle Syndrome, J Ultrasound Med, 1989; 8:411-416.
  9. Hilgers TW, Kimball CR, Keck SJ, Dvorak AD, Tamisiea DF, Yaksich PJ: Assessment of the Empty Follicle Syndrome by Transvaginal Sonography. J Ultrasound Med, 1992; 11:313-316.
  10. Hilgers TW, Daly KD, Hilgers SK, Prebil AM: The Creighton Model FertilityCare™ System: A Standarized, Case Management Approach to Teaching. Book I – Basic Teaching Skills. 2nd Edition. Pope Paul VI Institute Press. Omaha, NE, 2002.
  11. Hilgers TW, Abraham GE, Cavanagh D: Natural Family Planning I. The Peak Symptom and Estimated Time of Ovulation. Obstet Gynecol, 1978; 52:575-582.
  12. Sakamoto C: Sonographic Criteria of Basic Changes in Human Endometrial Tissue. Int J Gynaecol Obstet, 1985; 23:7-12.
  13. Eissa MK, Sawers RS, Docker MF, Lynch SS, Newton JR: Characteristics and Incidence of Dysfunctional Ovulation Patterns Detected by Ultrasound. Fertil Steril 1987; 47:603-612.
  14. Ying Y-K, Daly DC, Randolph JF, Soto-Albers CE, Maier DB, Schmidt CL, Riddick DH: Ultrasonographic Monitoring of Follicular Growth for Luteal Phase Defects. Fertil Steril, 1987; 48:433-436.
  15. Marik J, Hulka J: Luteinized Unruptured Follicle Syndrome: A Subtle Cause of Infertility. Fertil Steril 1978; 29:270-274.
  16. Kerin JF, Kirby C, Morris D, McEvoy M, Ward B, Cox LW: Incidence of the Luteinized Unruptured Follicle Phenomenon in Cycling Women. Fertil Steril 1983; 40:620-626.
  17. Katz E: The Luteinized Unruptured Follicle and other Ovulatory Dysfunctions. Fertil Steril, 1988; 50:839-850.
  18. Lewinthal D, Furman A, Blankstein J, Corenblum B, Shaler J, Lunenfeld B: Subtle Abnormalities in Follicular Development and Hormonal Profile in Women with Unexplained Infertility. Fertil Steril 1986; 46:833-839.
  19. Haines CJ, Emes AL: The Relationship Between Follicle Diameter, Fertilization Rate, and Microscopic Embryo Quality. Fertil Steril 1991; 55:205-207.
  20. Coulam CB, Bustillo M, Schulman JD: Empty Follicle Syndrome. Fertil Steril 1986; 46:1153-1155.
  21. Tsuiki A, Rose BI, Hung TT: Steroid Profiles of Follicular Fluids from a Patient with Empty Follicle Syndrome. Fertil Steril 1988; 49:104-107.
  22. Zandt-Stastny D, Thorsen MK, Middleton WD, Aiman J, Zion A, McAsey M, Haroski: Inability of Sonography to Detect Imminent Ovulation. A J R 1989; 152:91-95.
  23. Craft I, Shelton K, Yovich J, Smith D: Ovum Retention in the Human. Fertil Steril, 1980; 34:537-541.
  24. Stanger JD, Yovich JL: Failure of Human Oocyte Release at Ovulation. Fertil Steril, 1984: 41: 827-832.
  25. Hilgers TW: A Sonographic Classification System for Disorders of Human Ovulation. In: Hilgers TW: The Medical and Surgical Practice of NaProTECHNOLOGY, Chapter 18, Pope Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, NE, 2004.
  26. Hackeloer BJ, Fleming R, Robinson HP, Adam AH, Coutts JRT: Correlation of Ultrasonic and Endocrinologic Assessment of Human Follicular Development. Am J Obstet Gynec 135: 122-128, 1979.
  27. Polan ML, Totora M, Caldwell BV, DeCherney AH, Haseltine FP, Kase N: Abnormal Ovarian Cycles as Diagnosed by Ultrasound and Serum Estradiol Levels. Fertil Steril 37:342-247, 1982.
  28. Marrs RP, Varqyas JM, March CM: Correlation of Ultrasonic and Endocrinologic Measurements in Human Menopausal Gonadotropin Therapy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 145:417-421, 1983.
  29. Petsos P, Chandler C, Oak M, Ratcliffe WA, Wood R, Anderson DC: The Assessment of Ovulation by a Combination of Ultrasound and Detailed Serial Hormone Profiles in 35 Women with Long-standing Unexplained Infertility. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 22:739-751, 1985.
  30. Lenz S: Ultrasonic Study of Follicular Maturation, Ovulation and Development of Corpus Luteum During Normal Menstrual Cycles. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 64:15-19, 1985.
  31. Tsuiki A, Rose BI, Hung TT: Steroid Profiles of Follicular Fluids from a Patient with Empty Follicle Syndrome. Fertil Steril 49: 104-107, 1988.
  32. Finn MM, Gosling JP, Tallon DF, Joyce LA, Meehan FP, Fottrell PF: Follicular Growth and Corpus Luteum Function in Women with Unexplained Infertility Monitored by Ultrasonography and Measurement of Daily Salivary Progesterone. Gynecol Endocrinol 3:297-308, 1989.
  33. Kurjak A, Jurkovic D: Ultrasonic Monitoring of Follicular Growth and Ovulation in Spontaneous and Stimulated Cycles. In: Kurjak A, Ed. Ultrasound and Infertility. Boca Raton: CRC Press 89-124, 1989.
  34. Scheenjes E, te Velde ER, Kremer J: Inspection of the Ovaries and Steroids in Serum and Peritoneal Fluid at Various Time Intervals after Ovulation in Fertile Women: Implications for the Luteinized Unruptured Follicle Syndrome. Fertil Steril 54:38-41, 1990.
  35. Kupesic S, Kurjak A: The Assessment of Normal and Abnormal Luteal Function by Transvaginal Color Doppler Sonography. Am J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 72:83-87, 1997.
  36. Andreotti RF, Thompson GH, Janowitz W, Shapiro AG, Zusmer NR: Endovaginal and Transabdominal Sonography of Ovarian Follicles. J Ultrasound Med 8:555-560, 1989.
  37. Hamilton CJCM, Wetzels LCG, Evers JLH, Hoogland HJ, Muitjens A, de Haan J: Follicle Growth Curves and Hormonal Patterns in Patients with the Luteinized Unruptured Follicle Syndrome. Fertil Steril 43:541-548, 1985.
  38. Hamilton MPR, Fleming R, Coutts JRT, Macnaughton MC, Whitfield CR: Luteal Cysts and Unexplained Infertility: Biochemical and Ultrasonic Evaluation. Fertil Steril 54:32-37, 1990.
  39. Huang K, Muechler EK, Bonfiglio TA: Follicular Phase Treatment of Luteal Phase Defect with Follicle-Stimulating Hormone in Infertile Women. Obstet Gynec 64:32-36, 1984.
  40. DiZerga GS, Hodgen GD: Luteal Phase Dysfunction Infertility: A Sequel to Aberrant Folliculogenesis. Fertil Steril 35:489-499, 1981.
  41. Bersha C, Broden H, Lundin K, Hamberger L: Comparisons of Fertilization, Cleavage and Pregnancy Rates of Oocytes from Large and Small Follicle. Hum Reprod 1998 Jul; 13(7): 1912-1915.
  42. Haines CJ, Emes AL: The Relationship Between Follicle Diameter, Fertilization Rate, and Microscopic Embryo Quality. Fertil Steril 1991; 55:205-207.
  43. Pierson RA, Martinuk SD, Chizen DR, Simpson CW: Ultrasonic Visualization of Human Ovulation. In Evers JHL and Heineman MJ, eds. From Ovulation to Implantation. Elsevier Science Publishers, 1990; 73-79.

F. Follicular and Luteal Phase Deficiencies

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  2. Knaus HH: Eine Nue Methode Zur Bestimmung Des Ovulationsdenstermins Zbl Gynaek 53:2193, 1929.
  3. Rock J, Bartlett MK: Biopsy Studies of Human Endometrium. JAMA 2022-2028, June 12, 1937.
  4. Brewer JI: Studies of the Human Corpus Luteum. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1048-1061, June 17, 1942.
  5. Jones GES: Some Newer Aspects of the Management of Infertility. JAMA 141:1123-1129, 1949.
  6. Noyes RW, Hertig AT, Rock J: Dating the Endometrial biopsy. Fertil Steril 1:3-25, 1950.
  7. Gillam JS: Study of the Inadequate Secretion Phase Endometrium. Fertil Steril 6:18-36, 1955.
  8. Grant A, McBride WG, Moyes JM: Luteal Phase Defects in Sterility. Int J Fert 4:315-322, 1959.
  9. Jones GS: The Luteal Phase Defect. Fertil Steril 27:351-356, 1976.
  10. Wentz AC: Endometrial Biopsy in the Evaluation of Infertility. Fertil Steril 33:121-124, 1980.
  11. Rosenfeld DL, Chudow S, Bronson RA: Diagnosis of Luteal Phase Inadequacy. Obstet Gynecol 56:193-196, 1980.
  12. Balasch J, Vanrell JA, Crues M, et al: The Endometrial Biopsy for Diagnosis of Luteal Phase Deficiency. Fertil Steril 44:699-701, 1985.
  13. Cumming DC, Honore LH, Scott JZ, et al: The Late Luteal Phase in Infertile Women: Comparison of Simultaneous Endometrial Biopsy and Progesterone Levels. Fertil Steril 43:715-719, 1985.
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  71. Bhavnani BR, Gerulath AH: Metabolism of [3H] Equilin in Normal and Malignant Human Endometrium and in Endl Adenocarcinoma Transplanted into Nude Mice. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 38:433-439, 1991.
  72. Bhavnani BR, Cecutti A: Metabolic Clearance Rate of Equilin Sulfate and its Conversion to Plasma Equilin, Conjugated and Unconjugated Equilenin, 17 beta-dihydroequilin, and 17 beta-dihydroequilenin in Normal Postmenopausal Woman and Men under Steady State Conditions. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 77:1269-1274, 1993.
  73. Zhang F, Chen Y, Pisha E, et al: The major metabolites of Equalin, 4-hydroxyequilin, Autoxidizes to an o-quinone which Isomerizes to the Potent Cytotoxin 4-hydroequilenin-o-quinone. Chem Res Toxicol 12:204-213, 1999.
  74. Nillius SJ, Johansson EDB: Plasma Levels of Progesterone after Vaginal, Rectal or Intramuscular Administration of Progesterone. Am J Obstet Gynecol 110:470-477, 1971.  
  75. Price JH, Ismail H, Gorwell RH, et. al.: Effect of the Suppository Base on Progesterone Delivery from the Vagina. Fertil Steril 39:490-493, 1983.
  76. Maxson WS, Hargrove JT: Bioavailability of Oral Micronized Progesterone. Fertil Steril 44:622-626, 1985.
  77. Ferre F, Uzan M, Janssens Y, et al: Oral Administration of Micronized Natural Progesterone in Late Human Pregnancy: Effects on Progesterone and Estrogen Concentrations in the Plasma, Placenta, and Myometrium. Am J Obstet Gynecol 148:26-34, 1984.
  78. Pawick ML, Endicott J, Matson C, Whitehead MI: Absorption and Metabolism of Oral Progesterone Administered Twice Daily. Fertil Steril 46:402-407, 1986.
  79. Sitruk-Ware R, Brikaire C, de Lignieres B, et al: Oral Micronized Progesterone: Bioavailability Pharmokinetics, Pharmacological and Therapeutic Implications – A Review.
  80. Contraception. 36:373-402, 1987.
  81. Chakmakjian ZH, Zacharia NY: Bioavailability of Progesterone with Different Modes of Administration. J Repro Med 32:443-448, 1987.
  82. Nahoul K, Dehennin L, Scholler R: Radioimmunoassay of Plasma Progesterone After Oral Administration of Micronized Progesterone. J Steroid Biochem 26:241-249, 1987.
  83. Nahoul K, Dehennin L, Scholler R: Radioimmunoassay of Plasma Progesterone After Oral Administration of Micronized Progesterone. J Steroid Biochem 26:241-249, 1987.
  84. Hargrove JT, Maxson WS, Wentz AC: Absorption of Oral Progesterone is Influenced by Vehicle and Particle Size. Am J Obstet Gynecol 169:948-951, 1989.
  85. Cheema M, Palin KJ, Davis SS: Lipid Vehicles for Intestinal Lymphatic Drug Absorption. J Pharmacol 59:55-56, 1987.
  86. Kimzey LM, Gumowski J, Merriam GR, et al: Absorption of Micronized Progesterone from a Non-Liquifying Vaginal Cream. Fertil Steril 56:995-996, 1991.
  87. Villanueva B, Casper RF, Yen SSC: Intravaginal Administration of Progesterone: Enhanced Absorption after Estrogen Treatment. Fertil Steril 35:433-437, 1981.
  88. Cicinelli E, Ragno G, Cagnazzo I, et al: Progesterone Administration by Nasal Spray. Fertil Steril 56:139-141, 1991.
  89. Simon JA, Robinson DE, Andrews MC, et al: The Absorption of Oral Micronized Progesterone: The effect of food, dose proportionality, and comparison with intramuscular progesterone. Fertil Steril 60:26-33, 1993.
  90. Fanchin R, deZiegler D, Bergeron C, et al: Transvaginal Administration of Progesterone. Obstet Gynecol 90:396-401, 1997.
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  94. Bulletti C, DeZiegler D, Flamigni C, et al: Targeted Drug Delivery In Gynaecology: The First Uteirne Pass Effect. Hum Reprod 12:1073-1079, 1997.
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H. Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion

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  30. Pouly JL, Bassil S, Frydman R, et al: Luteal Support After In-Vitro Fertilization: Crinone 8%, A Sustained-Release Vaginal Progesterone Gel, Versus Utrogestan an Oral Micronized Progesterone. Hum Reprod 11:2085-2089, 1996.
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  38. Wulff C, Dickson SE, Duncan WC, et al: Angiogenesis in the Human Corpus Luteum: Simulated Early Pregnancy by hCG Treatment is Associated with Both Angiogenesis and Vessel Stabilization. Hum Reprod 16:2515-2524, 2001.
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  41. Harrison RF: Treatment of Habitual Abortion with Human Chorionic Gonadotropin: Results of Open and Placebo-Controlled Studies. Europ J Obstet Gynec Reprod Bio 20:159-168, 1985.
  42. Harrison RF: Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) in the Management of Recurrent Abortion: Results of a Multi-Centre Placebo-Controlled Study. Europ J Obstet Gynec Reprod Bio 47:175-179, 1992.
  43. Harrison RF: A Comparative Study of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin, Placebo, and Bedrest for Women with Early Threatened Abortion. Int J Fertil 38:160-165, 1993.
  44. Blumenfeld Z, Ruach M: Early Pregnancy Wastage: The Role of Repetitive Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Supplementation During the First Eight Weeks of Gestation. Fertil Steril 58:19-23, 1992.
  45. Quenby S, Farquharson RG: Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Supplementation in Recurring Pregnancy Loss: A Controlled Trial. Fertil Steril 62:708-710, 1994.
  46. Branch DW, Porter F, Paidas MJ, et al: Obstetric Uses of Intravenous Immunoglobulin: Successes, Failures, and Promises. J Allergy Clin Immunol 108:S133-8, 2001.
  47. Rai R, Cohen H, Dave N, et al: Randomized Controlled Trial of Aspirin and Aspirin Plus Heparin in Pregnant Women with Recurrent Miscarriages Associated with Phospholipid Antibodies (or Antiphospholipid Antibodies). Brit Med J 314:253-257, 1997.
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I. Effectiveness of NaProTECHNOLOGY in the Treatment of Infertility

  1. Kaplan EL, Meier P: Non-Parametric Estimation from Incomplete Observations. J Am Stat Assoc 53:457-481, 1956.
  2. Olive DL, Haney AF: Endometriosis-Associated Infertility: A Critical Review of Therapeutic Approaches. Obstet Gynecol Surv 41:538-553, 1986.
  3. Sharma V, Allgar V, Rajkhowa M: Factors Influencing the Cumulative Conception Rate and Discontinuation of In Vitro Fertilization Treatment for Infertility. Fertil Steril 78:40-46, 2002.
  4. 2001 Assisted Reproductive Technology Success Rates: National Summary and Fertility Clinic Reports. American Society for Reproductive Medicine and Center for Disease Control, Atlanta and Birmingham, December 2003.
  5. Cramer DW, Walker AM, Schiff I: Statistical Methods in Evaluating the Outcome of Fertility Therapy. Fertil Steril 32:80-86, 1979.
  6. Olive DL: Analysis of Clinical Fertility Trials: A Methodologic Review. Fertil Steril 45:157-171, 1986.
  7. Rock JA, Guzick DS, Sengos C, et al: The Conservative Surgical Treatment of Endometriosis: Evaluation of Pregnancy Success with Respect to the Extent of Disease as Categorized Using Contemporary Classification Systems. Fertil Steril 35:131-137, 1981.
  8. Adashi EY, Rock JA, Guzick D, et al: Fertility Following Bilateral Ovarian Wedge Resection: A Critical Analysis of 90 Consecutive Cases of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Fertil Steril 36:320-325, 1981.
  9. Hogan JW: Identifying and Addressing Data-Analytic Challenges in Studies of IVF and ART. In: International Symposium on Frontiers and Reproductive Endocrinology. Serono Symposia USA., Washington DC March 27-31, 2001.
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  11. Jones HW, Schnorr JA:  Multiple Pregnancies: A Call to Action. Fertil Steril 75:11-13, 2001.
  12. Karande VC, Korn A, Morris R, et al: Prospective Randomized Trial Comparing the Outcome and Cost of In Vitro Fertilization with that of a Traditional Treatment Algorithm as First-Line Therapy for Couples with Infertility. Fertil Steril 71:468-475, 1999.
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  14. Driscoll GL, Tyler JPP: What is the Best Strategy for Presenting ART Results? A Controversial Comment. J Assist Reprod Genet 16:463-467, 1999.

J. Premenstrual Syndrome

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  3. Dalton K: The Premenstrual Syndrome and Progesterone Therapy. Yearbook Medical Publishers, Inc., Chicago, 1977.
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  55. Dalton ME: Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin Concentrations in Women with Severe Premenstrual Syndrome. Post Grad Med J. 57:560-561, 1981.
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  57. Spellacy WM, Ellingson AB, Keith G, Kahn-Dawood FS, Tsiberis JCM:  Glucose and Insulin Levels During the Menstrual Cycles of Normal Women and Premenstrual Syndrome Patients. J Reprod Med 35:508-511, 1990.
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K. Postpartum Depression

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L. Dating the Beginning of Pregnancy

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  5. Gardosi J, Geirsson RT: Routine Ultrasound is the Method of Choice for Dating Pregnancy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 105:933-936, 1998.
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  8. Nguyen TH, Larsen T, Engholm G, Moller H: Increased Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes with Unreliable Last Menstruation. Obstet Gynec 95:867-873, 2000.
  9. Taipale P, Hiilesmaa V: Predicting Delivery Date by Ultrasound and Last Menstrual Period in Early Gestation. Obstet Gynec 97:189-194, 2001.

M. Using Progesterone Support During Pregnancy

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